Posted on

Biofloc technology has become a popular technology in the farming of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and now it is used in P. It is now a very popular system of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp and fish farming with low or no water exchange.

It is comparatively much profitable and bio-secured system of aquaculture. This system is commercially using with success in shrimp farming in Indonesia, Malaysia and Australia. This technology utilizes the co-culture of heterotrophic bacteria and algae grown in flocs under controlled conditions within the culture pond.

Thus microbial biomass is grown on unconsumed feed, fish excreta, and inorganic nitrogenous products resulting in a removal of these unwanted components from the water. The major driving force is the intensive growth of heterotrophic bacteria which consume organic carbon. Flocs consist of a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms floc formers and filamentous bacteriaparticles, and colloids.

At its core, biofloc is a waste water treatment system and was developed to mitigate the introduction of diseases into aquaculture facilities or farms from incoming water water exchange, typically used in prawn farming. Biofloc systems employ a counter-intuitive approach to more traditional aquaculture designs. Where more traditional aquaculture designs seek to remove suspended solids, bio-floc systems allow and encourage solids and the associated microbial communities to accumulate in the water.

They treat wastes from feeding and provide nutrition from floc consumption. One of the benefits of biofloc systems is it capacity to recycle waste nutrients via microbial protein into fish or prawns. The main component of biofloc is nitrogen that is incorporated into bacterial cells. One other benefit of biofloc systems is the benefit of improved feed conversion ratios derived from the consumption of microbial protein. It should also be noted that bi-floc systems are generally implemented as pond based systems as they add the most benefits to pond based aquaculture.

The major component of biofloc is heterotrophic bacteria. The function of the biofloc is to reduce the nitrogenous metabolic waste ammonia, nitrite produced by shrimp feeding and production. Ammonia consumed by heterotrophic bacteria becomes protein, which can then be consumed by shrimp and converted into growth. Heterotrophic bacteria need carbon for ammonia to be assimilated. In addition to the commercial feed, a supplemental source of carbon must be added in order to stimulate production of the heterotrophic bacteria and reduce the nitrogenous waste.

Shrimp feed has a carbon to nitrogen C:N ratio of approximately 7— Heterotrophic bacteria would prefer a ratio of approximately 12— Simple sugars or starches are added to increase the ratio and promote bacterial growth. Additives have included molasses, sugar, sucrose, and dextrose. Some producers use glycerin. Application rates will vary with the protein content of the feed and composition of the carbon source, but a good rule of thumb is that for every 1 kg of feed, about 0. Higher protein feed will need higher carbon supplementation.

Actual applications must take into consideration the levels of ammonia and nitrites in the water. For successful and efficient management of a biofloc farm have to get more idea about biofloc management. But the technique is not so complicated. Most simple and easily understandable explanation about biofloc is that heterotrophic bacteria will decompose waste materials and ammonia content of water and will be converted to bacterial biomass.

Part of this highly nutritious biomass consumed by protozoa and other microorganisns will converted to their biomass.Are you trying to break into aquaculture industry or already working in the field and looking to gain additional expertise for career development? This publication summarizes basic management practices for the majority of farmers raising marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Indiana, US, based on the most current literature available, writes Robert Rode, Purdue University.

Over the past few years an increasing number of marine shrimp enterprises have started up in Indiana. Based on feedback from a meeting with Indiana shrimp farmers, it appears that both novice and experienced farmers need more technical knowledge. This publication summarizes basic management practices for the majority of farmers raising marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Indiana based on the most current literature available.

The predominant method of rearing shrimp in Indiana uses the biofloc water treatment system for dealing with the metabolic wastes associated with production. The majority of the discussion to follow deals with this kind of system.

Shrimp, like other aquatic organisms raised at higher than natural densities, affect the quality of the water they live in. Controlling this environment to maintain optimum conditions reduces stress levels, improves growth, and reduces the risk of mortality.

Recommended ranges for water quality parameters for shrimp culture are listed in Table 1. Whatever the testing mechanism, the kit must be for saltwater applications. Methods of controlling water quality will be described later in this text.

Biofloc systems remove metabolic wastes from aquatic production systems. Bacteria that convert ammonia to nitrate are cultured in the main rearing tank as opposed to in a separate vessel. The bacteria form aggregates or colonies called bioflocs suspended in the water column.

This is done for several reasons. Eliminating the biofilter reduces costs and saves floor space. In the case of shrimp, the biofloc becomes an additional feed source, which decreases the feed conversion ratio of commercial feeds, again reducing costs. Shrimp are stocked in biofloc systems at densities ranging from to post-larvae PLs per square meter.

Feed conversions should range from 1. Microbial proteins in the biofloc generally add 0. Production parameters for these systems are shown in Table 2.

Shrimp are stocked in single batches of like-size postlarvae PLs. Feeding is based on calculations of biomass, feed conversion, mortality, weekly gain per individual, and percentage body weight feeding. Feed rate is adjusted after routine sampling for uneaten feed on the bottom of the tank using a dip net one-half hour after feeding. Less than optimum water quality parameters can also be an indicator that feed is less than optimum.

Feed can be dispersed either by hand or with a mechanical device such as a belt feeder. Feeding by hand is best for dispersing the feed over a wide area of the tank allowing all individuals to obtain food.

Automated feeders can be used when the operator is not present. Processed feed is still the most important addition for good growth of shrimp even in a biofloc system. Shrimp feed should be purchased from a reputable manufacturer and stored properly. Diets change over the production cycle with pellet size increasing from approximately 1. If PLs are smaller than recommended, a smaller particle size and higher protein feed is warranted.

Please check with feed and PL suppliers as to recommended starter feeds. A 16 ft. How much would the daily feed allowance be after four weeks? Using values from Table 2, the theoretical biomass of shrimp is found.Such technique is based on in situ microorganism production which plays three major roles: i maintenance of water quality, by the uptake of nitrogen compounds generating in situ microbial protein; ii nutrition, increasing culture feasibility by reducing feed conversion ratio FCR and a decrease of feed costs; and iii competition with pathogens.

This natural productivity plays an important role recycling nutrients and maintaining the water quality. The present chapter will discuss some insights of the role of microorganisms in BFT, main water quality parameters, the importance of the correct carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in the culture media, its calculations, and different types, as well as metagenomics of microorganisms and future perspectives.

Water Quality. In a world where more than million people continue suffering from chronic malnourishment and where the global population is expected to grow by another 2 billion to reach 9. In this context, aquaculture plays a key role in eliminating hunger, promoting health, reducing poverty, as well as generating jobs and economic opportunities.

According to FAO [ 1 ], the world food fish aquaculture production expanded at an average annual rate of 6. The sector provides jobs to tens of millions and supports the livelihoods of hundreds of millions. Fish continues to be one of the most traded food commodities worldwide. It is especially important for developing countries, sometimes worth half the total value of their traded commodities. On the other hand, global aquaculture has yet to face some serious challenges.

For instance, aquaculture has been accused of being an unsustainable activity, because of the effluents discharged to the environment which contain excess of organic matter, nitrogenous compounds, toxic metabolites, and elevated rates of chemical and biochemical oxygen demands [ 2 ]. Other serious accusations include the competition for land and water, the introduction of exotic species around the globe, the overexploitation of ocean fish stocks to obtain fishmeal and fish oil, the dispersion of pathogens, the development of antibiotic resistance genes, etc.

Furthermore, aquaculture has to constantly deal with other problems, such as the shortage of ingredients and their price volatility. Thus, strategies aimed to overcome these challenges are required. In this regard, the modification of physicochemical variables of the culture system to favor the proliferation of particular biotic communities has been adopted not only to improve the recirculation of nutrients and the consequent detoxification of the system but also to use the biomass of such biotic communities as direct food source for the cultured organisms [ 5 ].

These kinds of systems, also known as biofloc BFT technology systems, promise to solve some of the above challenges and revolutionize aquaculture [ 6 ]. Biofloc technology BFT is as an environmentally friendly aquaculture technique based on in situ microorganism production.

In addition, continuously water movement in the entirely water column is required to induce the macroaggregate biofloc formation. Nutrients in water in accordance with a known carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 12— will contribute naturally to a heterotrophic microbial community formation and stabilization.

These microorganisms play three major roles: i maintenance of water quality, by the uptake of nitrogen compounds generating in situ microbial protein; ii nutrition, increasing culture feasibility by reducing feed conversion ratio FCR and a decrease of feed costs; and iii competition with pathogens.

The consumption of biofloc by shrimp or fish has demonstrated innumerous benefits such as improvement of growth rate, decrease of FCR, and associated costs in feed [ 8 ]. In addition, recently BFT also has been applied in carp culture [ 23 ], catfish culture [ 24 ], and cachama culture [ 25 ]. Water quality maintenance and monitoring in aquaculture are the essential practices aiming at the success of the growing cycles.

Temperature, dissolved oxygen DOpH, salinity, solids [total suspended solids TSS and settling solids], alkalinity, and orthophosphate are some examples of parameters that should be continuously monitored, especially in BFT. The comprehension and understanding of water quality parameters and its interactions in BFT are crucial to the correct development and maintenance of the production cycle.

For example, safety ranges of pH, DO, total ammonia nitrogen TANsolids, and alkalinity will lead a health growth and avoid mortalities.

N:P ratio normally using nitrate and orthophosphate values will influence the autotrophic community that will occur in the system e. Microorganisms play a key role in BFT systems. The maintenance of water quality, mainly by the control of bacterial community over autotrophic microorganisms, is achieved using a high carbon-to-nitrogen C:N ratio, since nitrogenous by-products can be easily taken up by heterotrophic bacteria.

High carbon-to-nitrogen ratio is required to guarantee optimum heterotrophic bacteria growth, using this energy for maintenance respiration, feeding, movement, digestion, etc.

The stability of zero or minimal water exchange depends on the dynamic interaction among communities of bacteria, microalgae, fungi, protozoans, nematode, rotifer, etc. Such consortia of microorganism will help on the water quality maintenance and recycling wastes to produce a high-value food.The costliest factors in aquaculture are high-quality feeds, filtration systems and the investment needed for ample space to grow target species.

With continuously rising production costs, farmers and researchers are looking for alternative ways to produce more seafood while utilising fewer resources.

Originally conceived as a natural way to clean water, biofloc systems are becoming increasingly popular as a low-cost means of cleaning the culture water of fish and shrimp farms while simultaneously providing an additional source of feed. Best of all, implementing biofloc principles requires little investment — as only sunlight, a carbohydrate source and plenty of aeration are needed.

biofloc formula

Biofloc systems bank on photosynthesis to convert uneaten feeds, faeces and excess nutrients into food. While breaking down toxic ammonia and nitrates, both primary-producing autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria multiply to attract an ever-growing host of organisms — including diatoms, fungi, algae, protozoans and various types of plankton.

Biofloc Technology (BFT) in Aquaculture

Larger aggregations can be seen by the human eye, resembling brown or green sludge. Though not too appealing for humans, this is a scrumptious smorgasbord for fish and shrimp. By recycling proteins, biofloc systems overcome concerns associated with high animal-stocking densities and low filtration capacity — like decreased water quality and increased risk of disease outbreaks. In traditional farming systems, only about 25 percent of the protein content of feeds are actually utilised by farmed species.

By converting ammonium into microbial proteins that can be consumed by filter feeders, biofloc systems are able to double this figure, saving farmers big money. Biofloc systems reduce the spread and effectiveness of pathogens while simultaneously improving fish health through better water quality and bolstered feed availability.

Ten easy steps towards biofloc production of shrimp or tilapia

As such, biofloc systems can give us a natural way of producing more seafood sustainably, while concurrently improving farm profitability. This system is a win-win situation for all stakeholders. There are still many unknowns and much remains to be discovered. Microbes, minerals and heavy metals naturally based in the soil easily influence the parameters of the pond water and can affect the natural processes underlying the biofloc system.

Covered ponds are good options. If you use large ponds you should instal bottom drains to occasionally remove excess sludge. This is especially important when adding carbohydrates on a regular basis, which adds considerably more sludge to the pond Step 4. A second option is to use biofloc reactors to accelerate the conversion of pond sludge to bioflocs. All biofloc systems require constant motion to maintain both high oxygen levels and to keep solids from settling.

Areas without movement will rapidly lose oxygen and turn into anaerobic zones which release large amounts of ammonia and methane. To prevent this, every pond, tank or raceway system needs a well-planned layout of aerators. Ponds typically use paddlewheel aerators. Biofloc systems require up to 6mg of oxygen per litre per hour and it is recommended to start with at least 30 horsepower of aerators per hectare. But, depending on the intensity and productivity of the system, this number can reach as high as horsepower per hectare See table 1 from the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center further on.

Paddlewheel aerators should be installed strategically so that a current is created in the pond.

biofloc formula

To accelerate the development of your biofloc system and stabilise your pond faster, it is advisable to pre-seed the culture water. This can be done by adding a number of commercial or homemade recipes to the culture water. INVE and VINNBIO are two of the better-known companies that provide starter cultures for various probiotic microbes, but there are many locally produced brands available across Asia as well just check out online forums or Alibaba.

A simple homemade recipe to quickly produce probiotic and prebiotic microbes uses wheat pollard and Red Cap 48 a local product from South-East Asia mixed in a closed drum and left to ferment for 48 hours, after which the contents can be added to the pond.

Though most species would benefit from the improved water quality of biofloc systems, you want to select species that best benefit from the extra proteins generated, by feeding and digesting the bioflocs themselves.

These species are wholly or partially filter feeders. Both shrimp and tilapia are excellent candidates, as they gobble up bioflocs, thereby dramatically improving the feeding efficiency and FCR of your farming operation. At STAC in Malaysia, even non-filter feeders like jade perch and different groupers have been farmed in indoor biofloc systems, with very positive results.

It is however important to avoid species which dislike murky waters with a high solid content, like some catfish and barbs.Fishery is one of the biggest source of food in this world. Fishery is a word described for raising and harvesting fish for consumption as food. There is a big channel of resources and people involved in raising and harvesting fish in order to sustain the food required in the world.

Fishing is therefore one of the biggest source of employment in the world. As offish production was at all-time high which was calculated to be million tons.

Everything You Need to Know About Biofloc Technology in Fish Farming and its Profitability

Since the consumption of fish has reached to record high it is not possible to meet the demand using the traditional methods of fishing. With the changing times fishery industry has adopted more innovating and efficient methods of raising and harvesting fish in order to sustain the requirements. One of such methods is the biofloc technology which is method evolved to deal with waste water management, maintain bio-chemical cycles and to maintain the nutrition level of the aquatic life.

The method of seen immense growth within a short span and at present is used extensively to ensure high growth of aquatic life and the fishing industry.

It is without doubt that there has been multifold rise in the demand of aquatic food and the old method of food production was not sufficient hence the fishery industry has adopted this very successful method known as biofloc technology to deal with the production of aquatic food in order to meet the demands. Biofloc technology basically aims at converting the toxic waste material generated within the aquatic water into protein rich food for the aquatic life.

biofloc formula

Secondly, biofloc technology aims at maintain a healthy atmosphere in the water by regulating the carbon-nitrogen cycle within the water and ensures that the bio-chemical speeds up which makes the water quality optimum for the successful growth of aquatic life.

Lastly, this method also accelerates the growth of bacteria, fungus and single cell organisms which initiated the bio-chemical cycle. High stocking density and the rearing of the aquatic lives requires fine treatment of waste water which improves the living standard of the aquatic living beings which indeed ensures a healthy and prosperous growth of aquatic animals such as the fish.

For the whole process maintaining of C: N ration is important which is done by enriching carbohydrate sources such as the molasses. The water quality is improved by increasing the production of bacteria, fungus and single cell organisms. These organisms break downs the nitrogen and carbohydrates similar to as a bio reactor and turns them into feed for the aquatic animals.

Using the same method quality of water is also improved. With the rising population and demand for food fishing sector got into huge stress. The demand of fishes went up while the production still followed the old methods of fishing which looked redundant in front of the demand. The old method was simple like creating a pond or similar water body and then raising fish while providing all the required supplements.

Since this method was natural hence the growth of fishes took place at normal rate thus unable to meet the demand. The problem worried the members of industry and that is when new methods for fishing were adopted in order to meet the demand.

While raising the fish the water quality worsened which also impacted the production. One common reason was that only limited number of fishes could be raised in a given water body.Because closed aquaculture systems have very low water exchange and controlled inputs, and because they typically have a smaller footprint than traditional open ponds, these systems are receiving increased attention to enhance biosecurity and minimize water use to culture marine species inland.

These intensive, closed systems can be established indoors and near major consumer centers for year-round production, and are gaining popularity in some regions, including the United States, where indoor shrimp farming has an interesting opportunity to develop further.

Clear-water recirculating aquaculture systems CW and biofloc BF technology systems are two categories of closed aquaculture systems. CW systems usually involve an external biofilter for nitrifying bacteria and filters for solids removal from the water. Some systems also have UV lamps for water sterilization. These systems typically have more filtration components and higher capital and operational costs vs.

BF systems. But by setting up biofiltration externally with consistent conditions, CW systems may provide more system control and stability, especially regarding nitrogen cycling. BF systems have a significant amount of particulates and a dense microbial community, and their only external filtration is usually a solids filter to manage particulates. Although these systems involve less equipment, usually have lower capital costs, and biofloc particles may provide supplemental nutrition for shrimp, BF systems are generally more difficult to manage and require more aeration equipment to support the significant microbial community.

BIOFLOC C/N RATIO CALCULATION

We carried out this study summarized from the original publication in Aquacultural Engineering 77 9—14 to compare CW and BF systems in terms of shrimp production, water quality dynamics and the estimated nutritional contribution of suspended biofloc particles in BF systems. Six identical fiberglass tanks — each with an internal diameter of cm, an operating depth of 74 cm, and a volume of 1.

Before being stocked into the experimental tanks, the shrimp were raised in a clear-water nursery system for 30 days. Please refer to the original publication or contact the first author for a detailed description of the experimental systems and experimental design, animal husbandry, water quality, use of stable isotopes to determine C and N incorporation into shrimp tissues, as well as the statistical analyses used in this study.

Regarding water quality, water temperature, dissolved oxygen DO and salinity were all within acceptable ranges for Pacific white shrimp.

Considering pH, it was relatively constant in the CW system but significantly lower in the BF system and possibly caused some stress in the animals. The CW system had significantly lower turbidity, reflecting the additional mechanical filtration; it was higher in the BF system but it is not unusual to have high turbidity in biofloc systems. Measured ammonia levels were regularly higher in the CW system, resulting in a significant difference between the treatments; however, all ammonia concentrations measured were below the estimated safe levels for L.

Regarding shrimp production, the animals reached a significantly larger average size of Feed conversion ratio in the CW system was 1.

Shrimp survival was not significantly different between the treatments, but mean survival in the CW system was markedly higher at 78 percent in contrast with 69 percent in the BF treatment, resulting in substantially better shrimp production in the CW system.

The high particulate concentrations as indicated by the turbidity values in the BF treatments was a potential cause for their relatively diminished shrimp production. Various studies in the scientific literature report that shrimp grown in water from ponds with particulate matter performed significantly better than shrimp grown in saline and clean well water, which contradicts our results.

However, those studies were conducted at lower shrimp densities and particulate concentrations than the current study, and unlike ours, dense algal blooms and meio-fauna were present.

In addition, our results may be different from some previous studies because the nutritional contribution of natural biota like biofloc is reduced at higher animal density in more intensive systems, so that biofloc as a nutritional supplement may not be as important in intensive systems as it is in traditional semi-intensive ponds. Regarding isotope dynamics, we examined the levels of C and N isotopes in shrimp, feed, and biofloc to obtain estimates of where shrimp are obtaining these elements.

Our results showed that there were no significant differences between shrimp d N 15 values in the two treatments. However, animals from the CW treatment had significantly lower d C 13 values vs.

Shrimp production in the BF system was not improved relative to shrimp in the CW system. In contrast to the findings of other related studies, biofloc may not have contributed much to shrimp growth in our study because the estimated contribution of N from biofloc to shrimp in this study was very small. Results of our study show that CW tanks had significantly higher levels of ammonia and pH, and BF tanks had significantly higher nitrate, nitrite and turbidity levels.

Based on stable isotope data, biofloc contributed 18 to 60 percent of the carbon and 1 to 16 percent of the nitrogen of the body tissue gained by shrimp.

But these nutrient contributions from biofloc did not correspond to better shrimp production in the BF treatment, because shrimp total biomass, individual weights and FCR were all significantly better in the CW treatment vs.

It is not clear exactly what led to these disparities in shrimp production, but the differences in water quality may have been involved.Fishery is one of the biggest source of food in this world. Fishery is a word described for raising and harvesting fish for consumption as food. There is a big channel of resources and people involved in raising and harvesting fish in order to sustain the food required in the world.

Fishing is therefore one of the biggest source of employment in the world. As offish production was at all-time high which was calculated to be million tons. Since the consumption of fish has reached to record high it is not possible to meet the demand using the traditional methods of fishing. With the changing times fishery industry has adopted more innovating and efficient methods of raising and harvesting fish in order to sustain the requirements.

One of such methods is the biofloc technology which is method evolved to deal with waste water management, maintain bio-chemical cycles and to maintain the nutrition level of the aquatic life.

The method of seen immense growth within a short span and at present is used extensively to ensure high growth of aquatic life and the fishing industry. It is without doubt that there has been multifold rise in the demand of aquatic food and the old method of food production was not sufficient hence the fishery industry has adopted this very successful method known as biofloc technology to deal with the production of aquatic food in order to meet the demands.

Biofloc technology basically aims at converting the toxic waste material generated within the aquatic water into protein rich food for the aquatic life. Secondly, biofloc technology aims at maintain a healthy atmosphere in the water by regulating the carbon-nitrogen cycle within the water and ensures that the bio-chemical speeds up which makes the water quality optimum for the successful growth of aquatic life.

Lastly, this method also accelerates the growth of bacteria, fungus and single cell organisms which initiated the bio-chemical cycle. High stocking density and the rearing of the aquatic lives requires fine treatment of waste water which improves the living standard of the aquatic living beings which indeed ensures a healthy and prosperous growth of aquatic animals such as the fish.

For the whole process maintaining of C: N ration is important which is done by enriching carbohydrate sources such as the molasses. The water quality is improved by increasing the production of bacteria, fungus and single cell organisms. These organisms break downs the nitrogen and carbohydrates similar to as a bio reactor and turns them into feed for the aquatic animals. Using the same method quality of water is also improved. With the rising population and demand for food fishing sector got into huge stress.

The demand of fishes went up while the production still followed the old methods of fishing which looked redundant in front of the demand. The old method was simple like creating a pond or similar water body and then raising fish while providing all the required supplements. Since this method was natural hence the growth of fishes took place at normal rate thus unable to meet the demand. The problem worried the members of industry and that is when new methods for fishing were adopted in order to meet the demand.

biofloc formula

While raising the fish the water quality worsened which also impacted the production. One common reason was that only limited number of fishes could be raised in a given water body. On increasing the density of fishes in the water the oxygen level depleted and the quality of water also worsened thus hampering the production. Two factors namely the fall in oxygen level and the water waste created by the aquatic animals were matter of concern.

This is still manageable in rivers and sea but a stagnant water body had to face huge problems. Manual cleaning of the pond was thus used and increasing the oxygen level was adopted to meet the oxygen level but managing the water waste and cleaning turn out to be expensive. Biofloc method thus was invented and implemented to solve both the problems. Many experiments were conducted in order to evaluate whether the biofloc technology was good enough to be implemented. Several parameters were evolved and tests were conducted to measure the water quality and oxygen level of the water.

It was found that biofloc method was effective in maintaining the required oxygen level, mineral quality, alkaline nature, PH level, etc. It was found that using biofloc technology fishes reached their required average size within 30 days while without biofloc method it took 45 days for fishes to reach their average size.

Other researches were also conducted in order to determine the production cost using biofloc technology and clear water system. Thus the net profit generated was also higher than the fresh water method.


Replies to “Biofloc formula”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *