CherokeeNorth American Indians of Iroquoian lineage who constituted one of the largest politically integrated tribes at the time of European colonization of the Americas. They are believed to have numbered some 22, individuals inand they controlled approximately 40, square milessquare km of the Appalachian Mountains in parts of present-day Georgiaeastern Tennesseeand the western parts of what are now North Carolina and South Carolina.
Traditional Cherokee life and culture greatly resembled that of the Creek and other tribes of the Southeast. The Cherokee nation was composed of a confederacy of symbolically red war and white peace towns.
The chiefs of individual red towns were subordinated to a supreme war chief, while the officials of individual white towns were under the supreme peace chief. The peace towns provided sanctuary for wrongdoers; war ceremonies were conducted in red towns. When encountered by Spanish explorers in the midth century, the Cherokee possessed a variety of stone implementsincluding knivesaxesand chisels.
They wove baskets, made potteryand cultivated corn maizebeansand squash. Deerbearand elk furnished meat and clothing. Cherokee dwellings were bark-roofed windowless log cabinswith one door and a smoke hole in the roof. A typical Cherokee town had between 30 and 60 such houses and a council house, where general meetings were held and a sacred fire burned.
An important religious observance was the Busk, or Green Corn, festival, a firstfruits and new-fires celebration. The Spanish, French, and English all attempted to colonize parts of the Southeast, including Cherokee territory. By the early 18th century the tribe had chosen alliance with the British in both trading and military affairs.
By the British had begun to engage in a scorched-earth policy that led to the indiscriminate destruction of native towns, including those of the Cherokee and other British-allied tribes. Tribal economies were seriously disrupted by British actions.
In the Cherokee and the Creek had to exchange a portion of their land to relieve the resulting indebtedness, ceding more than two million acres more thanhectares in Georgia through the Treaty of Augusta. In the Overhill Cherokee were persuaded at the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals to sell an enormous tract of land in central Kentucky to the privately owned Transylvania Land Company.
Although land sales to private companies violated British law, the treaty nevertheless became the basis for the colonial settlement of that area. As the American War of Independence loomed, the Transylvania Land Company declared its support of the revolutionaries. The Cherokee became convinced that the British were more likely to enforce boundary laws than a new government and announced their determination to support the crown. Both assaults failed, and the tribe retreated in disgrace. Those raids were the first in a series of attacks by Cherokee, Creek, and Choctaw on frontier towns, eliciting a vigorous response by militia and regulars of the Southern colonies during September and October.
At the end of that time, Cherokee power was broken, their crops and villages destroyed, and their warriors dispersed. The defeated tribes sued for peace. Peace reigned for the next two years. When Cherokee raids flared up in during the American preoccupation with British armed forces elsewhere, punitive action led by Colonel Arthur Campbell and Colonel John Sevier subdued the tribe again.
The second Treaty of Long Island of Holston July 26, confirmed previous land cessions and caused the Cherokee to yield additional territory. After the Cherokee were remarkable for their assimilation of American settler culture.
The tribe formed a government modeled on that of the United States. They adopted colonial methods of farming, weaving, and home building. Perhaps most remarkable of all was the syllabary of the Cherokee languagedeveloped in by Sequoyaha Cherokee who had served with the U. Army in the Creek War. The syllabary—a system of writing in which each symbol represents a syllable—was so successful that almost the entire tribe became literate within a short time.
A written constitution was adopted, and religious literature flourished, including translations from the Christian Scriptures. When gold was discovered on Cherokee land in Georgia, agitation for the removal of the tribe increased.
The overwhelming majority of tribal members repudiated the treaty and took their case to the U. Supreme Court. The court rendered a decision favourable to the tribe, declaring that Georgia had no jurisdiction over the Cherokee and no claim to their land.
Removal was implemented by 7, troops commanded by General Winfield Scott.Several years ago, when my daughter lost her baby teeth and grew new adult teeth, we noticed one in particular. The right lateral incisor next to the canine on the top row is shaped like a T when viewed from below.
From the front, the tooth appears normal—but it has another point, or ridge, perpendicular to the front. She has an incisor that has not yet descended, and we have often wondered if it, too, will be special. In dental school we learned about the talon cuspwhich is what you have. This is something that occurs more frequently in Native American populations, among certain others, and I am guessing you have some Native American ancestry. The orthodontist told my daughter that she did indeed have a special tooth, and that it was an honor to see it.
Her daughter was Ode Wampu. My own great-grandmother was an Oklahoma-born Cherokee they called her Fanny. Through years of research we have become well versed in our ancestry, and I have always embraced the multicultural aspects of our family. When I was growing up, my family lived on a acre farm in the fertile plains of Indiana.
This was once home to a paleo-Indian community, and later home to the Mississippian tribe. As kids, we found over a hundred artifacts on our farm, including spear points, arrow heads, nutting stones, and rough outs. My brother and I once found a petrified tooth inside one of the many caves on our property. Dental anthropology is a fascinating field of study that uses dental remains to determine, among other things, the race and heritage of a person.
I knew teeth were important indicators of our heritage, but curiosity prompted me to do some research. The Texas Archeological Research laboratory has been studying prehistoric dental remains to trace populations in North America. My daughter has a talon cusp, also called an eagle talon cusp.
These dental ridges and bumps seem to occur only in people descended from Native American, Inuit, Aleutian, or Chinese people. These populations are understood by dental anthropologists to have extended from the Siberian population many centuries ago. In addition to dental features, it is possible that other genetic markers may be associated with these peoples, as well.
An Associated Press article reported on researchers at Stanford University who found that an "extremely rare mutation of the Y chromosome may be a genetic marker unique to the people who migrated to the Americas 30, years ago…This mutation exists only in Indian populations in North and South America, as well as Eskimos.
Shovel incisors. Another dental trait indicative of Native American ancestry is shovel incisors, or shovel-shaped incisors which I have! The roots of these teeth are double the size of the tooth. The tooth itself is thinner and concave on the backside, with a scooped appearance, like a shovel.
Shovel teeth can also have ridges. This feature can be mild or exaggerated.Cherokee Nation calls Elizabeth Warren's DNA test "useless"
The roots are strong and often run deep into the jawbone, even attaching to the bone itself. Winged incisors. Winged incisors front teeth are also seen among Inuit and Native American peoples. They are called winged incisors because they grow side by side to form a V pattern. Three-rooted molars. Another trait my ancestors could have had was a three-rooted molar, instead of the more typical two-rooted molar.
My Native American ancestors were not the only people with distinct dental traits. Some Europeans have an additional bump on the outside of their upper molars.
Cherokee Unlike Other Indians
This bulge is called a Carabelli Cusp, named after the hard-working dentist of the Austrian Emperor Franz. The Cusp of Carabelli is a heritable feature, so its presence indicates European ancestry.
People of European ancestry tend to have teeth that are flat, without shovels or ridges. Their teeth are smooth on the front and the back.Archaeological evidence, early written accounts, and the oral history of the Cherokees themselves show the Cherokees as a mighty nation controlling more thansquare miles with a population of thirty-six thousand or more.
Often the townhouse stood on an earthen mound, which grew with successive ceremonial re-buildings. More so, this language was unintelligible to the Jews in England and Holland. Married to a Chickasaw woman himself, Adair had a fond admiration for the Native Americans.
Thick Hair, Small Boobs, Shovel Shaped Teeth and More
Sadly, his observation was twisted during the American Revolution to something very different. By the late 20th Century, North Carolina was at a new extreme. Academic fraud on this scale regarding the early Colonial archives saw other ethnic groups living in the region prior tobut the Cherokees were forgotten.
Subsequently, two generations of archaeologists and historians thoroughly quoted each other in academic papers, not realizing that North Carolina possessed a different history before The proto-Creek pottery and architecture familiar with us all which is found in these towns has been named Coweta — being a Creek word having no meaning in the Cherokee language.
This included all the territory belonging to the tribes who were allied with the French. Almost immediately thereafter, the Creek Confederacy won the 40 year long Cherokee-Creek war, taking back and forth the Cherokee core territory that was captured 40 years prior from the Creeks. All other tribes inhabiting these areas were forced to leave. They added northwest Georgia along with northeast Alabama which is the land they inhabited from toalong with huge sections of North carolina, South Carolina and Georgia — places they never lived.
Late into the 20th Century, Cherokee leaders repetitively said they never built mounds. Suddenly, a new generation of North Carolina Cherokees assumed the map meant that they had in fact built the mounds in the Southeast.
This same line of thought was extended to the belief that they were also the first to domesticate corn, beans and squash.
DNA tests do not currently exist which can accurately particularly label any particular tribe in eastern North America. Genetically, the people claiming themselves to be full-blooded Native Americans are not the same people who greeted early European explorers. Attempting to create reliable DNA markers for individual tribes, reputable laboratories are mounted with monumental obstacles.
Perceived as a vast market for millions of Americans claiming they descend from a great grandmother who was a Cherokee princess, DNA Consultants Inc. North Carolina Cherokees were selected as after years inhabiting the west, they are thoroughly mixed with other ethnics, rendering any DNA test marker so far obtained useless.
This makes them genetically more likely to be Jewish than the typical American Jew of European ancestry. Even their skin color and facial features differ from Native American aesthetics, primarily looking more Semitic in origin. Both DNA consultants and journalists now state that these research results apply to all Cherokees from the Qualla Reservation. Slave raids may have contributed as the 18th Century Cherokees were known as the biggest players when it came to the slave trade.
It is known that the British around forged an alliance with 8 small Native towns holding Creek names along Northwest Carolina and the powerful Rickohockens of southwest Virginia, thwarting the French colonies expansion. Modern times sees the Cherokee language to be a mixture of Rickohocken, Creek and Shawnee.
There is much that anthropologists and historians lack about the early history of the Southern Highlands. Who knows what will still be uncovered? Thank you to Native American News for the insights provided for this piece. I was surprised to find out how many Hebrew artifacts have been discovered in the Untied States.
Additionally, that many of the early European and Jewish settlers acknowledged that the Native Americans have many laws, traditions and customs that are similar or the same as the ancient Hebrew tribes. Sadly, Hebrew artifacts that were turned over to Yale University, Smithsonian Institute or other educational organizations turned up missing over and over again.
Out of the French Revolution came a new manifestation of satanic power that made open and avowed warfare against the Word of God. The philosophy that came out of the French Revolution was atheism, secular humanism and communism.The Cherokee people are described by William Bartram in his writings as having dark-black, course hair and a reddish-brown or copper-colored complexion. They also have an aquiline shape to their noses and a noble, heroic look. Today's Cherokee people exhibit a wide variety of physical characteristics due to the introduction of early Scottish and German settlers into their bloodline.
While some Cherokee people have stereotypical high cheekbones, pointed nose and strong forehead, others have blond hair and blue eyes. This is because early Scottish and German miners bred with Cherokee women. Descended from Iroquois, the Cherokee history is a tragic one. The people of the Cherokee nation that were living in Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee and the surrounding states were forced to leave and relocate to Oklahoma.
The route they traveled was dubbed the Trail of Tears, and along the route that this migration traversed many descendants of the original Cherokee nation can be found today. Several celebrities claim to be at least part Cherokee, although not all can actually trace their tribal ancestry. Home World View. What Are Six Characteristics of a Civilization? What Is the Definition of Social Trends? How Do People Live in the Rainforest?But the new chapbook is affordable, quick to read and no less groundbreaking and authentic in its research.
A DNA test run on a rare specimen of his in bore this out. Growing up in Memphis, Elvis went to summer camp through the Jewish community center. When his mother died, he took care to have her grave marked with a Star of David since removed. He studied Judaism increasingly in later years and to the end of his life wore a chai necklace, symbol of Jewish life. Well, maybe not. Bracketing for the moment what makes one a Jew, we have to admit that American Indian identity is not so simple either.
One factor weighing heavily in both claims, however, is DNA. Paleo-American genetics is fraught with problems. About twenty years ago, in a work as revered as it is unreadable, Italian-born geneticist Luca Luigi Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University unveiled a tree of man based on an analysis of markers from forty-two world populations. Looking solely at female lines, he posited two main limbs, African and non-African.
Included in Northeast Asians were so-called Amerindians. Amerinds were closest in genetic distance to Northern Turkic, Chukchi and other Arctic peoples. They shared a number of genetic markers with their ancient neighbors, including a similar frequency of female lineages. These came to be labeled mitochondrial haplogroups A, B, C, and D.
Little did Cavalli-Sforza and his team expect to encounter any snags in their research, much less defunding by the U. Government and the United Nations, but this is exactly what happened. The genial professor received a letter from a Canadian human rights group called the Rural Advancement Foundation International.
They demanded he stop his work immediately. They accused the Human Genome Diversity Project of biopiracy. The scientists were stealing DNA.
Ever since that slippery slope, geneticists have trodden warily around the issue of Native American demographics and genetics. The lines were indelibly drawn. The scientific community laid down the law that the earliest Native Americans come from four primary maternal lineages.
A fifth lineage, haplogroup X, was admitted, provisionally, in What account can we make of this haplogroup? Certain critics of the new axiom in American Indian genetics point out that B is not associated in high frequencies with Mongolian populations. Rather, it is Southeast Asian in origin—something borne out by the Elvis sample having also a rare Asian ethnic marker. Geneticists base their conclusions about ancient migrations on comparisons with population data of living peoples as reported in anthropological and forensic publications.
But these are assumptions, pure and simple. Is it certain that populations in places like Mongolia and Alaska in the past—especially far distant past—were the same as they are today? Numerous genetic types become extinct in the course of time.
My Cherokee Heritage and General Cherokee History
Early migrants can be replaced through competition or changed by gene flow from later arrivals. The current state of genomics cannot test ancestry that crosses from a male to female or vice versa. Most of our genetic history lies buried in non-sex-linked lines, the province of autosomal DNA. A study by D. This article was the source of untold mischief. Geneticists fell into lockstep to show that only a small number of founding mothers migrated from Asia into the New World.
Indespite a much shallower time-depth for calculating mutations, scientists decided that it had to be the same story for male founders. There was a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas.The Cherokee people have lived in the southeast United States for thousands of years.
Despite their interactions with foreigners, and a series of devastating forced migrations, the Cherokee have retained their unique culture and stayed united as a people. Their ability to survive is in part due to a unique set of characteristics that have allowed them to adapt to changes without losing their cultural identity. The Cherokee Indians have the distinct physical characteristics associated with Native Americans. This includes high cheekbones, a bent nose, reddish brown skin tone and coarse, dark hair.
Almond-shaped, heavy eyes are characteristic of Cherokee Indians, a trait that is due to an extra fold in the eyelid. Sometimes Cherokees have crooked fingers, especially the little fingers. Another physical characteristic is hidden behind the teeth, a ledge that gives the teeth a shovel appearance. An inverted breastbone is also common, a trait that leaves an indentation in the chest; it is sometimes called a "chicken breast.
Modern DNA analysis has allowed these traits to be traced and tracked and can help to identify those with Cherokee or other Native American blood.
The Cherokee people believe that decisions affecting the entire tribe must be met and discussed as a group. The Cherokee treat each other with respect and believe that bad deeds are always punished, so they are careful to avoid committing them.
When the Europeans arrived in the New World, the Cherokee were quick to welcome them with open arms. They often intermarried with the newcomers and incorporated their foods, philosophies and languages into their own culture. Their open and adaptable nature has allowed them to survive as a tribe into the 21st century, despite the incredible hardships their people have suffered. The Cherokee claim to have always lived in the southeast region of the United States.
Their lifestyle was that of an agricultural society. They lived in permanent settlements along the banks of rivers, raised crops and hunted wild game. The Cherokee are matrilineal, with the line of descent passing through the mother. Men were in charge of hunting and fishing while women tended the gardens, growing vegetables and herbs for both food and medicine.It apparently has conferred some advantage to its carriers, because it is found in the majority of Asian people today.
Or maybe those women survived when women with more body fat yes, boobs are fat, sorry guys and who could sweat less perished. Want to know if you carry this trait? Generally, a spreadsheet or Notepad will be your preferred methods. You will see two letters comprised of either T, A, C or G. If you have a G shown for either letter at this location, then you carry this particular mutation.
But what about Asian teeth? If your teeth are shovel shaped, meaning the backs of your upper 4 teeth are shaped like a spoon as opposed to straight, then you have this trait. So are you wondering what this might have to do with genetic genealogy?
Well, if you carry this gene, then you obtained it from some Asian ancestor. One would be Native American ancestry and the second would be the population or invasion of Europe by Asian groups, such as the Mongol Hordes and the Huns. Your genealogy will have to be your guide as to which source contributed this gene to your ancestors, and ultimately to you. I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles.
This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing. Interestingly, I have six half maternal siblings. I am reported to have 0. My Asian dentist told me I have shovel teeth about 10 years ago.
I think you mean I cary the gene even if I dont have all the traits. Is that right? I am 70 years old and my hair is still very thick. Thick hair follicles and lots of hair are two different things.
You can tell if you carry the gene for the trait by looking at your full sequence data. In some cases, when more than one gene is involved with the trait, you can have the trait and not THIS particular gene. But if you have the gene, you will have the trait.
Ah, you may have Native American ancestry, as Native Americans have the traits of thick hair and shovel teeth, but sweat less. Breast size is more average to full-size, I think based on my own experience. In later yrs. When I got my results, and heard of Gedmatch admixture programs, I tried it, and there it was 1. All this is fascinating, and I look forward to more revelations.
I just knew I had the mutation. Everything fits but for the hair. The shaft of my hair seems to be of medium thickness, neither fine nor coarse. I think the characterization of being more sweaty is not quite right.
Having more sweat glands means a more broadly released sweat, hence a more efficient cooling system. More sweat glands would mean less moisture output per gland—yes? Armpits, back, chest, hands were visibly wet whereas I would stay dry. Perhaps this explains also why foot odor has never been a problem for me.